FM Transmitter

FM Transmitter



  FM Transmitter Component List:

Resistors:
1M brown, black, green
47K yellow, violet, orange
22K red, red, orange
10K brown, black, orange
470R yellow, violet, brown

Capacitors:
1n ceramic 102
5p6 ceramic
22n ceramic 223
27p ceramic
100n monoblock

Transistors:
BC547

Air Coil
Trimcap
Electret microphone
Aerial wire 165cm

  FM Transmitter Technical Specifications:

Power: Requires 2 AA batteries, 9 volt battery can be used to increase range
Voltage Supply: 88-108MHz
Transmitter Distance: 300m or more
Dimensions: 1-3/4" (L) 3/4" (W) 1/2" (H)

FM Transmitter frequency is user selectable
Transmitter can be listened to on any FM radio

FM Transmitter Schematic


FM Transmitter
 

This FM transmitter is about the simplest and most basic FM transmitter it is possible to build and have a useful transmitting range. It is surprisingly powerful despite its small component count and 3V operating voltage. It will easily transmit over 300 meters in the open air and even more with higher voltage supply. The circuit we use is based on a proven Australian design. It may be tuned anywhere in the FM band. Or it may be tuned outside the commercial M band for greater privacy. Of course this means you must modify your FM radio to be able to receive the transmission or have a broad-band FM receiver. The output power of FM transmitter is within the legal limits of many countries. However, some countries may ban all wireless FM transmitters without a licence. It is your responsibility to check the legal requirements for the operation and to obey them. FM transmitter is constructed on a single-sided printed circuit board PCB.



FM Transmitter Instructions

 

Components may be added to the PCB in any order. Note that the electret microphone should be inserted with the pin connected to the metal case connected to the negative rail (that is, to the ground or zero voltage side of the circuit). The coil should be about 3mm in diameter and 5 turns. The wire is tinned copper wire, 0.61 mm in diameter. After the coil in soldered into place spread the coils apart about 0.5 to 1mm so that they are not touching. (The spacing in not critical since tuning of FM transmitter will be done by the trim capacitor. It is quite possible, but not as convenient, to use a fixed value capacitor in place of the trimcapacitor - say 47pF - and to vary the Tx frequency by simply adjusting the spacing of the coils. That is by varying L of the LC circuit rather than C.) Adding and removing the batteries acts as a switch. Connect a half or quarter wavelength antenna (length of wire) to the aerial point. At an FM frequency of 100 MHz these lengths are 150 cm and 75 cm respectively.



FM Transmitter Circuit Description
 

This FM transmitter is about the simplest and most basic FM transmitter it is possible to build and have a useful transmitting range. It is surprisingly powerful despite its small component count and 3V operating voltage. It will easily transmit over 300 meters in the open air and even more with higher voltage supply. The circuit we use is based on a proven Australian design. It may be tuned anywhere in the FM band. Or it may be tuned outside the commercial M band for greater privacy. Of course this means you must modify your FM radio to be able to receive the transmission or have a broad-band FM receiver. The output power of FM transmitter is within the legal limits of many countries. However, some countries may ban ALL wireless FM transmitters without a licence. It is your responsibility to check the legal requirements for the operation and to obey them. FM transmitter is constructed on a single-sided printed circuit board PCB.



FM Transmitter Circuit Description
 

The circuit is basically a radio frequency (RF) oscillator that operates around 100 MHz. Audio picked up and amplified by the electret microphone is fed into the audio amplifier stage built around the first transistor. Output from the collector is fed into the base of the second transistor where it modulates the resonant frequency of the tank circuit (the 5 turn coil and the trimcap) by varying the junction capacitance of the transistor. Junction capacitance is a function of the potential difference applied to the base of the transistor. The tank circuit is connected in a Colpitts oscillatorcircuit. Let us look at the individual blocks of the circuit more closely:

The electret microphone: an electret is a permanently charged dielectric. It is made by heating a ceramic material, placing it in a magnetic field then allowing it to cool while still in the magnetic field. It is the electrostatic equivalent of a permanent magnet. In the electret microphone a slice of this material is used as part of the dielectric of a capacitor in which the diaphram of the microphone forms one plate. Sound pressure moves one of its plates. The movement of the plate changes the capacitance. The electret capacitor is connected to an FET amplifier. These microphones are small, have excellent sensitivity, a wide frequency response and a very low cost.

First amplification stage: this is a standard self-biasing common emitter amplifier. The 22nF capacitor isolates the microphone from the base voltage of the transistor and only allows alternating current (AC) signals to pass.

The tank (LC) circuit: every Tx needs an oscillator to generate the radio Frequency (RF) carrier waves. The tank (LC) circuit, the BC547 and the feedback 5pF capacitor are the oscillator in the Cadre. An input signal is not needed to sustain the oscillation. The feedback signal makes the base-emitter current of the transistor vary at the resonant frequency. This causes the emitter-collector current to vary at the same frequency. This signal fed to the aerial and radiated as radio waves. The 27pF coupling capacitor on the aerial is to minimise the effect of the aerial capacitance on the LC circuit.

The name 'tank' circuit comes from the ability of the LC circuit to store energy for oscillations. In a pure LC circuit (one with no resistance) energy cannot be lost. (In an AC network only the resistive elements will dissipate electrical energy. The purely reactive elements, the C and the L simply store energy to be returned to the system later.)

Note that the tank circuit does not oscillate just by having a DC potential put across it. Positive feedback must be provided. (Look up Hartley and Colpitts oscillators in a reference book for more details.)



FM Transmitter Circuit Calibration
 

Place the transmitter about 10 feet from a FM radio. Set the radio to somewhere about 89 - 90 MHz. Walk back to the FM transmitter and turn it on. Spread the winding of the coil apart by approximately 1mm from each other. No coil winding should be touching another winding. Use a small screw driver to tune the trim cap. Remove the screwdriver from the trim screw after every adjustment so the LC circuit is not affected by stray capicitance. Or use a plastic screwdriver. If you have difficulty finding the transmitting frequency then have a second person tune up and down the FM dial after every adjustment.

One full turn of the trim cap will cover its full range of capacitance from 6pF to 45pF. The normal FM band tunes in over about one tenth of the full range of the tuning cap. So it is best to adjust it in steps of 5 to 10 degrees at each turn. So tuning takes a little patience but is not difficult. The reason that there must be at least 10 ft. separation between the radio and FM transmitter is that the FM transmitter emits harmonics; it does not only emit on one frequency but on several different frequencies close to each other.

You should have little difficulty in finding the FM transmitter frequency when you follow this procedure.



What if FM Transmitter Desn't Work
 

Poor soldering is the most likely reason that the circuit does not work. Check all solder joints carefully under a good light. Next check that all components are in their correct position on the PCB. Thirdly, follow the track with a voltmeter to check the potential differences at various parts of the circuit particularly across the base, collector and emitter of the two transistors.

Are the transistors in the correct way. Is the battery flat. Check the collector-emitter voltages (1.0 to 1.5 V). This will tell you that the battery potential difference is across those components.

It is possible that due to variations in tolerance the 22K load resistor of the microphone may have to be increased or decreased to get the best response. Reducing the value will increase the sensitivity.



What to Learn from Building FM Transmitter

 

It should already be clear from the above circuit description that there is a surprising amount of electronics which may be learnt from this deceptively simple kit. Here is a list of some advanced topics in electronics which can be demonstrated or have their beginnings in this kit: Class C amplifiers; FM transmission; VHF antennas; positive and negative feedback; stray capacitance; crystal-locked oscillators; signal attenuation

The simple halfwave antennae used in the kit is not the most efficient. Greater efficiency may be gained by connecting a dipole antennae using 50 ohm coaxial cable. Connect one lead to the Anrenna point and the other to the earth line.

You may experiment with using 6V or 9V with the circuit to see how this increases the range of the transmitter. The sensitivity may be increased by lowering the 22K resistor to 10K. Try it and see.

Note that this FM transmitter is not suitable for use on your body, for example, in your pocket. This is because it is affected by external capacitance and the transmitting frequency drifts depending how close you are to it. Stray capacitance is automatically incorporated into the capacitance of the tank circuit which will shift the transmitting frequency.



FM Transmitter Kit

 


FM Transmitter kit

You can purchase a complete FM Transmitter kit at Electronics-DIY store. Please see the link for more details.


Related Links





Accurate LC Meter Capacitance Inductance Meter with 16F628 and LCD
Volt Ampere Meter with 16F876 Microcontroller and LCD display
 
Accurate LC Meter

Build your own Accurate LC Meter (Capacitance Inductance Meter) and start making your own coils and inductors. This LC Meter allows to measure incredibly small inductances making it perfect tool for making all types of RF coils and inductors. LC Meter can measure inductances starting from 10nH - 1000nH, 1uH - 1000uH, 1mH - 100mH and capacitances from 0.1pF up to 900nF. The circuit includes an auto ranging as well as reset switch and produces very accurate and stable readings.
PIC Volt Ampere Meter

Volt Ampere Meter measures voltage of 0-70V or 0-500V with 100mV resolution and current consumption 0-10A or more with 10mA resolution. The meter is a perfect addition to any power supply, battery chargers and other electronic projects where voltage and current must be monitored. The meter uses PIC16F876A microcontroller with 16x2 backlighted LCD.

50MHz 60MHz Frequency Meter / Counter with 16F628 & LCD
1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator
60MHz Frequency Meter / Counter

Frequency Meter / Counter measures frequency from 10Hz to 60MHz with 10Hz resolution. It is a very useful bench test equipment for testing and finding out the frequency of various devices with unknown frequency such as oscillators, radio receivers, transmitters, function generators, crystals, etc.
1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator

1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator produces high quality sine, square and triangle waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. The output waveforms can be both amplitude and frequency modulated. Output of 1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator can be connected directly to 60MHz Counter for setting precise frequency output.

BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter
USB IO Board PIC18F2455 / PIC18F2550
BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter

Be "On Air" with your own radio station! BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter broadcasts high quality stereo signal in 88MHz - 108MHz FM band. It can be connected to any type of stereo audio source such as iPod, Computer, Laptop, CD Player, Walkman, Television, Satellite Receiver, Tape Deck or other stereo system to transmit stereo sound with excellent clarity throughout your home, office, yard or camp ground.
USB IO Board

USB IO Board is a tiny spectacular little development board / parallel port replacement featuring PIC18F2455/PIC18F2550 microcontroller. USB IO Board is compatible with Windows / Mac OSX / Linux computers. When attached to Windows IO board will show up as RS232 COM port. You can control 16 individual microcontroller I/O pins by sending simple serial commands. USB IO Board is self-powered by USB port and can provide up to 500mA for electronic projects. USB IO Board is breadboard compatible.

RF Remote Control 433MHz Four Channel
100m 4-Channel 433MHz Wireless RF Remote Control
 
200m 4-Channel 433MHz Wireless RF Remote Control

Having the ability to control various appliances inside or outside of your house wirelessly is a huge convenience, and can make your life much easier and fun. RF remote control provides long range of up to 200m / 650ft and can find many uses for controlling different devices, and it works even through the walls. You can control lights, fans, AC system, computer, printer, amplifier, robots, garage door, security systems, motor-driven curtains, motorized window blinds, door locks, sprinklers, motorized projection screens and anything else you can think of.
100m 4-Channel 433MHz Wireless RF Remote Control

Four button RF remote is used to turn ON / OFF four different devices independently. Any of the four outputs can be configured to work independently in either toggle or momentary mode. Outputs are buffered by BC549 NPN transistors and can drive low voltage devices directly or be connected to either 5V or 12V relays (or motors) to control appliances that use 110V / 220V mains voltage or any voltage of your choice. Multiple remote systems can be used independently to control more than four appliances in the same location by changing the address code on 433MHz receiver and remote. It is also possible to use several remotes to control the same appliance such as garage door.
 

Electronics-DIY.com © 2002-2014. All Rights Reserved.