Here's a tiny one transistor spy FM transmitter bug that operates from a single 1.5V AA battery. Main advantage of this circuit is that power supply is a 1.5 Volts cell (any size) which makes it possible to fix PCB and the battery into very tight places. Transmitter even runs with standard NiCd rechargeable cells, for example a 750mAh AA size battery runs it about 500 hours (while it draws 1.4mA at 1.24V) which equals to 20 days. This way circuit especially valuable in amateur spy operations. Mini FM transmitters take place as one of the standard circuit types in an amateur electronics fan's beginning steps. When done right, they provide very clear wireless sound transmission through an ordinary FM radio over a remarkable distance. I've seen lots of designs through the years, some of them were so simple, some of them were powerful, some of them were hard to build etc.
Supply voltage : 1.1 - 3 Volts
Power consumption : 1.8 mA at 1.5 Volts
Range : 30 meters max. at 1.5 Volts
Here is the last step of this evolution, the most stable, smallest, problem less, and energy saving champion of this race. Circuit given below will serve as a durable and versatile FM transmitter till you break or crush it's PCB. Frequency is determined by a parallel L-C resonance circuit and shifts very slow as battery drains out.
Transistor is not a critical part of the circuit, but selecting a high frequency / low noise one contributes the sound quality and range of the transmitter. PN2222A, 2N2222A, BFxxx series, BC109B, C, and even well known BC238 runs perfect. Key to a well functioning, low consumption circuit is to use a high hFE / low Ceb (internal junction capacity) transistor.
Not all of the condenser microphones are the same in electrical characteristics, so after operating the circuit, use a 10K variable resistance instead of the 5.6K, which supplies current to the internal amplifier of microphone, and adjust it to an optimum point where sound is best in amplitude and quality. Then note the value of the variable resistor and replace it with a fixed one.
The critical part is the inductance L which should be handmade. Get an enameled copper wire of 0.5mm (AWG24) and round two loose loops having a diameter of 4-5mm. Wire size may vary as well. Rest of the work is much dependent on your level of knowledge and experience on inductances: Have an FM radio near the circuit and set frequency where is no reception. Apply power to the circuit and put a iron rod into the inductance loops to chance it's value. When you find the right point, adjust inductance's looseness and, if required, number of turns. Once it's OK, you may use trimmer capacitor to make further frequency adjustments. You may get help of a experienced person on this point. Do not forget to fix inductance by pouring some glue onto it against external forces. If the reception on the radio lost in a few meters range, than it's probably caused by a wrong coil adjustment and you are in fact listening to a harmonic of the transmitter instead of the center frequency. Place radio far away from the circuit and re-adjust. An oscilloscope would make it easier, if you know how to use it in this case. Unfortunately I don't have any Sad
Every part should fit on the following PCB easily. Pay attention to the transistor's leads which should be connected right. Also try to connect trimmer capacitor's moving part to the + side, which may help unwanted frequency shift while adjusting. PCB drawing should be printed at 300DPI, here is a TIFF file already set.
PCB design for the FM Transmitter
The one below is a past PCB work of mine, which was prepared to fit into a pocket flashlight. Since it was so crowded, use the new computerized PCB artwork instead, yet very small. Take a look at my PCB design page to get information on my work style.
Transmitter PCB compared in size with an AA battery
Here is a completed and perfectly running circuit, mounted in a pocket light, taking the advantage of the 1.5V AA cell slot near it. Microphone is fixed into the bulb's place and antenna is made out of a 30cm soft cable. When cover is placed, it becomes very handy!
Transmitter placed in a pocket flashlight
Do not forget, restrictions on radio frequency transmitting devices may differ in your local area. This circuit has a power output that should be less than 1mW so have to be safe under many kinds of legal conditions but particular attempts such as listening to other people's private life will always be disapproved everywhere.
Spy FM Transmitter Bug